Welcome to Everything you want to know about The Celts


Hello there! We are a modern day Northern European Style tribe called Maers Khohias. We are of both Norse and Celtic decent here. Come sit. Warm yourself by our fire!! We want you to feel at home as we share some of our Celtic tribe's hospitality. Come. Join in our sitting circle, round the central cauldron and have something to eat, in our Celtic round house. Once fed, sit back, relax, read and listen to some of our stories. Here you will find great information, taking you back in time to meet the ancestors.

If you have the opportunity to come in person to Crawford Bay, BC and take in our courses taught at our school, you'll hear more information, on the Celts and the Vikings, not shared here, as well as live music. We'd love to hear your stories too!!

In no time, you'll be dancing, sharing some good mead or ale and adding to the rooms boasts and toasts.
We Northern European Celts and Vikings are waiting for you.

Having and event? We offer lots of props to choose from as well as great musicians and entertainers. This will be the icing for your Celtic or Viking medieval style event. Need some costumes or warrior gear? We shall help you there too. ... Or Maybe you are the studious type and want to study Celtic ritual, dance, music and beliefs, or have a you have a gift. If so you might want to take a course from our Druid/Bard schools. See here.

Slainte!!!

Saturday, December 15, 2012

First Norse of Newfoundland / Labrador Clothing

A Norse woollen garment with a head covering.
The Norse who settled in Newfoundland most likely wore clothing similar to this outfit which was excavated in Herjolfsnes, southwestern Greenland - same time period.  They did not stay here long .  Only two years then  moved on.. 




Picture is From Geoffrey Ashe et al., The Quest for America (New York: Praeger Publishers, ©1971) 103. Courtesy of the Nationalmuseet (The National Museum of Denmark), Copenhagen, Denmark.

Friday, August 3, 2012

Medieval Hair Combs


The earliest Hair combs in Celtic areas are from Atlantic Scotland. But combs in general can be traced to as far back as 5,000 years ago. The material most used for medieval combs was reindeer or deer antler. 

Pictish Celts, Scottish Celts and Scandinavians had 14 different style medieval hair combs found. Very decorative as well. Later on during Viking ages, these medieval hair combs developed elaborate metal engravings on them as well, although it is argued that these were also available earlier. 

Medieval Hair Combs were not only used to tame stray hairs or detangle hair, but for cleaning purposes.

Both sexes would use medieval hair combs and medieval pins to braid their hair and fasten hollow golden balls, feathers and other beads to the ends of the braids. Another style that was popular among some medieval Celtic men was the glib (short all over except for a long, thick lock of hair towards the front of the head).  It was kind of a buns or ponytails atop their heads we hear, in at least one tribe. 

The Irish, both men and women, took great pride in their long hair and their law books state that those who cut off another's hair against their will would pay a heavy fine of two cows. Women had very long hair which was their mark of beauty. 

A band or ribbon around the forehead was another typical way of holding one's hair in place but it was only nobility that wore an often a thin and bendy strip/ribbon of burnished gold, silver or findrinny. 

There are three types of medieval hair combs; hair combs to comb the hair to detangle, decorative medieval hair combs to stay in the hair and what we would call flea combs today. 

Brahva 

Laurie L. Mills

Copyright August 3rd, 2012

Monday, March 26, 2012

Laziness of the new breed of Pagan

This laziness of these new breed of eclectic pagan or non-traditionalist is what I call them annoys me to no end, yet they wish to be taken seriously and want titles and credit without doing any actual work.  Newbie Seekers want everything right now, they want it for free, with the least amount of effort possible, and if it doesn't go their way,  or when they believe is enough time gone by, then its the teachers fault not theirs.  Can we say.....Unbalanced lol.

Sacred Celtic Tribes Tools, Totems & Gods


Northern European Sacred Tools, Taboos and Totems

Throughout every culture we find lists of very similar stories of special sacred objects or tools and animals. These range from clothing to armour to weapons & so on. The Welsh texts, which hold the Arthurian myths, possessed all of these as well & hold the same candle of marvellous qualities of any Irish myths, including apples, pig-skin, the spear, horses & chariot, cows & pigs, the hound-whelp, & the cooking-spit, in which the Irish tale speaks of the sons of Tuirenn obtaining for Lugh. 

You know doubt heard parts of many of the Irish tales, if anyone has been through any eclectic Wicca or their books out, the Tuatha de Denaan's stone, cauldron, sword & wand. But did you know that most of these ceremonial practitioners have never even read a full mythology story let alone picked up a translated ancient text and read it cover to cover. These are the same misinformed, who claim that the later tales of King Arthur does not come from Celtic mythology nor is he a God they say.  Yet these are the same ones who have the nerve to claim Cerridwen a Goddess, when she is lesser in status then Arthur is in these texts.  She is a fisherman's wife.  If you're reading about Cerridwen, then you are reading from the same branches of Arthurian mythology - The Mabinogi.   She & He both have traits which show they are from nature, both exhibit superhuman powers as does hints of his court & band of warriors. 


Many of the ancient Northern European tales are credited to such authors as Hans Christian Anderson and the Brothers Grimm that we tell our children today, but most people don't know they acre actually from Northern European mythology. Cinderella is one such tale credited to an author from the 1600's yet it is a revised German myth. Snow White is another such tale. Both with magickal objects, slippers or a magic mirror, & one even showing a triple death and resurrection.
I will mention only one particular Arthurian legend in one tale below.  The rest you can read on your own at your leisure, as it doesn't matter which Celtic area you go or to what culture you go to for that matter, they are all the same.  Just the names, tools and armour slightly changed to suit that tribe or families way of life.  When Christianity spread across the world, the same tales were told again but the names changed to Saints, apostles and Jesus Christ.  The staff became Joseph of Arimethea and the spear became the spear of destiny piercing Jesus's side.  But they are more ancient then Christianity and the story of Jesus.  Jesus is just Pisces, and each sign had its own stories with each era.

Yes it is the Arthurian treasures that became the most famous of all, known more familiarly as The 13 treasures of Britain, obtained in the oldest of all the Celtic mythologies, The Mabinogi. We must remember that before Wales became separate, the land was one. Some of these magickal objects are certainly identical with those of the other Celtic/Norse traditions. Discrepancies need cause no surprise, for as you've been taught prior, every tribe possessed its own way of telling the tale, and Maers Khohias shall be no different when their Sect of Priests modernized the Arthurian tales, and including those Arthurian tales of the Scandinavian tribes, to fit into our modern times & our traditions.
You've heard of them but Do you know from whence these treasures came. They were won by Arthur & his 'mighty' men. In this light, let me also tell you a shortened version of to the Arthurian tale of Kulhwch & Olwen that mentions the treasures and the other tales is for your own research:
Kulhwch was the son of a king who married a widow with a grown-up daughter. The stepmother urged Kulhwch to marry her daughter. He modestly replied that he was not yet of an age to wed. This angered her so she laid the destiny on him that he should never have a wife at all, unless he could win Olwen, the daughter of a terrible father called Ysbaddaden Bencawr which means "Hawthorn, Chief of Giants". This should sound familiar if you are familiar with the story of Arianrhod and her son Lleu. (Chefta – (see if anyone knows – Arianhrod cursed her son in embarrassment, his uncle, Gwydion, one of flowers Blodeuwedd). Lets continue;
The "Chief of Giants" was as hostile to suitors as he was so huge in shape, & he needed to prop his eyelids open always with a fork; & no wonder, for if he he let his daughter out of his sight & she was to be married, his own life would come to an end. Both in this peculiarity, & in the description of his ponderous eyebrows, which fell so heavily over his eyes, do we not see the Balor or the later Christian version of Goliath. This is no doubt a Fomor. Interesting that his name is associated with a tree, as many tribes chose trees as an ancestor they descended from. A hawthorn will live 50 to 100 years, the wide eyes or lids to be propped up could symbolize the trouble getting close as it has sharps thorns of doom. In the Christian mythology it became the crown used on Jesus. It ancient Europe, especially Germany, it was used to divide fields or land. Another interesting fact is that its other name is Mayflower. Which would describe the coming of spring & the dying of his fruit which is born in fall and winter. A later legend was to never sit under a hawthorn as it was a portal to the faerie lands, but earlier legend states that if hawthorn is brought into a home in the wrong time of year, death will follow. The myth is from 3500 BCE., as the myth is also found in Egypt and India. Some have said the hero is the constellation Bootes and the giant Orion. This gives us many clues which we can piece together by reading all the cultures myths – Lugh killing Balor, Cet killing Concubar, Fin killing the one-eyed wizard. Horned God he is not but the horned figure seems to be Serpens Caput. Astrology is all around us & I can't believe more people don't see the correlation but then again I can because with the coming of Christianity these myths began to be taught literally, & now, as we were programmed to be controlled to followed like sheep, hundreds of years later, we are just beginning to wake up. Everything is a cycle, everything is happening in that cycle, past, present & future.
Still more on the Hawthorn is The Glastonbury Thorn in Glastonbury, England is a small Common hawthorn tree which was transferred from pagans to Celtic Christianity and regarded as sacred by many Christians today. It is said to have sprouted miraculously from the staff of the early Christian figure Joseph of Arimathea another Orion with the staff (serpent). Of further religious significance and indeed scientific interest, the tree displays a rare phenomenon for its species, blooming not once but twice per year – around the time of both solstices.
Olwen the Giants daughter is that she is beautiful - "More yellow was her head than the flower of the broom, & her skin was whiter than the foam of the wave, & fairer were her hands & fingers than the blossoms of the wood anemone amidst the spray of the meadow-fountain. The eye of the trained hawk, the glance of the three-mewed falcon was not brighter than hers. Her bosom was more snowy than the breast of the white swan, her cheek was redder than the reddest roses. Whoso beheld her was filled with her love. White trefoils sprung up wherever she trod. And therefore was she called Olwen. From my attempt at translation it seems tom mean either "after white” or “eyesight” referring to awed or beautiful sight for eyes. Interesting that this is the same number of ingredients as it was to make Blodeuwedd -Flower bride???? Kulhwch blushed at her very name, and asked his father what to do. His father reminded him that he was Arthur's cousin, and to see him for a boon. Lhwch means 'sow' so I take it the Ku must have bean a title of honour for a swineherder.
A great description of Kulhwch is given as he leaves on his journey to Arthur. These are great clues as to what he is. - Kulhwch "pricked forth upon a steed with head dappled grey, of four winters old, firm of limb, with shell-formed hoofs, having a bridle of linked gold on his head, and upon him a saddle of costly gold. And in the youth's hand were two spears of silver, sharp, well-tempered, headed with steel, three ells in length, of an edge to wound the wind, and cause blood to flow, and swifter than the fall of the dewdrop from the blade of reed-grass upon the earth when the dew of June is at the heaviest. A gold-hiked sword was upon his thigh, the blade of which was of gold, bearing a cross of inlaid gold of the hue of the lightning of heaven; his war-horn was of ivory. Before him were two brindled white-breasted greyhounds, having strong collars of rubies about their necks, reaching from the shoulder to the ear. And the one that was on the left side bounded across to the right side, and the one on the right to the left, and like two sea-swallows sported around him. And his courser (means 'Swift horse') cast up four sods with his four hoofs, like four swallows in the air, about his head, now above, now below. About him was a four-cornered cloth of purple, & an apple of gold was at each corner, and every one of the apples was of the value of an hundred kine. There was precious gold of the value of three hundred kine upon his shoes, and upon his stirrups, from his knee to the tip of his toe. A blade of grass bent not beneath him, so light was his courser's tread as he journeyed towards the gate of Arthur's palace."
In my opinion, the rubies are kind of like the otherworld hounds of the Irish tales with red eyes of the underworld, the dogs represent above or the guardians and the four hoofs of the horse represent below. Shoemakers are a big thing too...why? Something I must study further. What I have found so far is that the story could coincide with the fact that the street in which shoemakers use to congregate was in one of the Arthurian figures only seen from an aerial view. With further study, you might find him in the sky and create a Maers Khohias myth with our own people and God families.
Long story short he greets Arthur, & demands Olwen for his bride. Arthur nor any of his court had ever heard of Olwen so he promises his cousin to help find her for him. He orders 6 of his most skilful warriors to go, each with powers. In the future should you every want to read about the Arthurian characters in their god forms, I'll give you a list. This is for you to learn on your own & thus create ritual & story from. The rest of the story is how they obtained these stuff for the wedding on the journey to get Olwen for Kulhwch. Then followed the enumeration of the thirteen treasures to be paid to him as dowry. Such a list of wedding presents was surely never known! Tools and sacred items is what this lesson is about.
Here is an actual Welsh Gaelic Arthurian poem from The Black Book of Gwynedd which lists these treasures, followed by its English translation;
"Tri Thlws ar Ddeg Ynys Prydain"

1. Dyrnwyn gleddyf Rhydderch hael, os tynnai ddyn namyn ef i hvn, ef a ennynai yn fflam oi Groes hyd i flaen, a ffawb ar ai harchai ef ai kae, ac oblegid y gyneddf honno hwy ai gwrthodynt: ac am hyny y gelwid ef Rhydderch hael.
2. Mwys Gwyddno garanir, bwyd i vn gwr a roid ynddo a bwyd i ganwr a gaid ynddo pan egorid.
3. Korn bran galed, y ddiod a ddamvnid i bod ynddo a gaid ynddo.
4. Kar mor gan mwynfar od ai ddy'n ynddo, damvnai i fod lle mynnai ac ef a fyddai yn ebrwydd.
5. Kebystr Klydno eiddvn a oedd mewn y stwffwl îs drae i wely eddvnai y march a fynnai ynno ef ai kae.
6. Kyllell llawfrodded farchog, yr honn a wasnaethai ir pedwar gwyr ar hugain i fwyta ar fort i gilydd.
7. Pair Tyrnog pe rhoid ynddo gig i wr llwfr i ferwi ni ferwai fyth, o rhoid ynddo gig i'wr dewr berwi a wnai yn ebrwydd.
8. Ogalen Tvdwal tvdklvd o hogai wr dewr i gleddyf arni od en-waedai ar wr, marw fyddai ac os hogai w'r llwfyr ni byddai waeth.
9. pais Badarn beisrvdd os gwisgai wr bonheddig kymhessur fyddai iddo, ar os Iangwr nid ai am dano.
10. gren a desgyl Rhegynydd ysgolhaig eiddvnid ynddvnt y bwyd a fynid ef ai kaid.
11. Gwyddbwyll Gwendddolau ap Ceido; set gwyddbywll Geltaidd hud a lledrith.
12. Gwyddbwll gwenddolen o gosodid y werin hwyn archwaryent i hvnain: Avr oedd y klawr ar arian oedd y gwyr.
13. Llenn Arthvr a fai dani nis gwelai neb ef ac ef a welai bawb." Mantell Tegau Eurfron; rhoddai brawf o ddiweirdeb.
It is from Arthurian tales and many other cultures myths, especially those that matched the Northern European tribes of the Celts and Scandinavian peoples I came up with our list, which of course will be told to you orally, not here in these handouts.
Time Changes & Other Footnotes
Hallows of Britain - aka 'Thirteen Treasures of Britain'. Translated these actually say “Three Ten Trophies on the Isle of Britain”. Their fame & history come from the Mabinogi and early Welsh Triads, The earliest manuscript contains only the names of the Treasures without the explanatory comments refer to the Treasures "that were in the North" and the majority of names are from Y Cogledd - (This name comes from English: The Old North) a Welsh term used by scholars to refer to those parts of what is now northern England and Southern Scotland, between 500 CE and the so called Viking invasions which started around 800 CE, so the legend most likely came from the Brythonic speaking people living there during this time. It is also spelled Hen Ogledd. The 13 Treasures are particularly remarkable attributes associated with heroes and kings of the Old North. There are several versions of Middle Welsh text listed, one of the earliest manuscript is the subject of Cardiff 17. According to this version, it is Taliesin who won The Jewels "in the North". Another says Arthur is said to have travelled to Annwn (in the North) to attempt to recover these sacred objects. Another says their storage was said to be guarded by Merlin. The treasures can only be used by the King or his representative in battle (warrior items). It is believed that the right to own & guard these objects reflect the same qualities needed to be worthy of the marital union with 'Sovereignty' (land). Added to the treasures in later versions was; The treasures changed through time, some belonging to the later 15th & 16th century tales. The Mantle of Tegau Eurfon and Eluned's Stone & Ring), dropping one item and counting "the Crock and the Dish" as one item instead of two. The ring Eluned Happy; game & a magic ring which may be history in the legend of Countess of the Fountain. There are a few versions of these Treasures, but the one which is rather different is given by Jones, in his “Welsh Bards”, which omits the halter of Clydno Eiddyn, but adds the mantle of Tegau Eurvron, which would only fit such ladies as were perfectly correct in their conduct, and the ring of Luned, by which she effected the release of Owain the son of Urien, seen also in the story of the Lady of the Fountain; whoever concealed the stone of this ring became invisible. The Mabinogi is the version mostly referred to. The Hallows or Treasures in Irish Myth - The Tuatha de Danaan were said to have brought 4 treasures to Ireland from the Otherworld. Hallows of Ireland consisted of the Claíomh Solais and Spear Luin, the Ardagh Chalice & the Lia Fail.
Three & Ten Trophies on the Isle of Britain”

1. Dyrnwyn the sword of Rhydderch Hael; if any man drew it except himself, it burst into a flame from the cross to the point, and all who asked it received it; but because of this property all shunned it; and therefore was he called Rhydderch Hael.
2. The basket of Gwyddno Garanhir; if food for one man were put into it, when opened it would be found to contain food for one hundred.
3. The horn of Bran Galed; what liquor soever was desired was found therein.
4. The chariot of Morgan Mwynvawr; whoever sat in it would be immediately wheresoever he wished.
5. The halter of Clydno Eiddyn, which was in a staple below the feet of his bed; and whatever horse he wished for in it, he would find it there.
6. The knife of Llawfrodded Farchawg; which would serve four and twenty men at meat all at once.
7. The cauldron of Tyrnog; if meat were put in it to boil for a coward it would never be boiled, but if meat were put in it for a brave man it would be boiled forthwith.
8. The whetstone of Tudwal Tudclud; if the sword of a brave man were sharpened thereon, and any one were wounded therewith, he would be sure to die, but if it were that of a coward that was sharpened on it, he would be none the worse.
9. The garment of Padarn Beisrudd; if a man of gentle birth put it on, it suited him well, but if a churl it would not fit him.
10. 11. The pan and the platter of Rhegynydd Ysgolhaig; whatever food was required was found therein.
12. The chessboard of Gwenddolen; when the men were placed upon it, they would play of themselves. The chessboard was of gold, and the men of silver.
13. The mantle of Arthur; whosoever was beneath it could see everything, while no one could see him.

The Treasures from many Cultures Mythologies
No matter what cultures mythology you read there are similar swords, baskets, chariots and so on of the 13 treasures in all of them. I had a list of Arthurian Celtic, Irish Celtic, Danish, Norse, Germanic, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Russian, Slavic, Finnish, Anglo-Saxon, India, Vietnamese, Philippine, Persian, Greek, Roman, 1st nations and so on, below I only refer to number one treasure the sword so you can see and the rest compare on your own if you wish to study this area in the future.
More Swords - There was also a sword of the fey created for negative affects for the balance of Excalibur. It is said that this one sword carries even more power and that it can destroy the other sacred objects but I have found no name. No matter what cultures mythology you read there are similar swords in them. Arthurian Celtic, Irish Celtic, Danish, Norse, Germanic, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Russian, Slavic, Finnish, Anglo-Saxon, India, Vietnamese, Philippine, Persian, Greek, Roman, 1st nations and so on. I once had the names of the swords listed here but took it out because it was way too long and unnecessary. I shall just list one more - The Sword of Attila – legendary sword that was wielded by Attila the Hun; claimed to have originally been the sword of Mars, the Roman god of war.
Included in most cultures is also the famous Broken Sword - sword that broke when a Saracen seneschal wounded Joseph of Arimathea in the thighs. Elyezer, the son of Pelles (Fisher King) carried the sword with him, in search of the true Grail Knight. Gawain & other knights failed to restore the sword. Galahad mended the sword in the final stage of the Grail quest & Pelles awarded the sword to Sir Bors, Uncle & Grail companion of Galahad. Also seen in Lord of the Rings – Tolkien. Also called The Grail Sword, a cracked holy sword which Sir Percival bonded back together, though the crack remained. Probably based of of the huge sword of Swentowit.
Besides the Arthurian Celtic myths, there are also new treasures depending on the culture & the era of which the myth was created. Lets learn about other ones;
Other Magical Items Rings – Again all cultures myths have similar tales, I encourage you to read a few myths, one from every culture - Rings of dispell, Oath rings, Charm rings, Invisibility rings, & Torcs were considered ring like and magical. As always these Similar rings are in many of the Welsh or better known as Arthurian stories & even the ones written later in the 14th century & the 12th century & in Sir Thomas Malory's tale of Sir Gareth of Orkney, in his 15th century epic Le Morte d'Arthur. in which Sir Gareth is given a ring by a damsel who lives in Avalon that renders him invulnerable to losing any tournament.
Images of Celtic Gods have been found wearing a torc or 'neck ring', necklaces also forms of rings. Torcs on rare occasions are mentioned as decoration in early Irish & Welsh literature, but none are described as magical. 75 complete neck torcs & fragments in 12 or 14 separate hoards dating to the 1st century BCE, were found at Snettisham, in Norfolk, England, in the 20th century & had been buried deliberately; it is not known why.
Magickal rings might have something to do with immortality and the souls gateways. Magical properties inhibiting access to the soul may explain "an ancient Greek maxim, attributed to Pythagoras, which forbade people to wear rings". Muslim pilgrims in Mecca may not wear rings.
Ancient drawings of Mesopotamian Gods sometimes include one or several rings attached to staffs or poles, or could be long branches but no reference has been found in writings recovered from that time to show whether they were magical or merely decorative. Generally, however, the two most common types of magical rings in mythology and fiction are arm rings & finger rings.
Magical rings can be magical for many of reasons, some give no reason, some by being enchanted by a magician or God, some because of the material of which it is made or a special jewel, or they are inhabited by a spirit.
Norse mythology or early European mythology tells of an arm ring named Draupnir worn by the Norse God Odin. The ring was placed onto Baldr's funeral pyre, but Baldr gave Draupnir back to Hermod & so the ring was returned to Odin from the land of death, with a new ability to replicate. Its only reported function was to create more gold arm bands every nine days. Another Norse ring was called Andvarinaut, the famous Ring of the Niebelungens. It eventually becomes the property of the hero Siegfried or Sigurd and is cursed. How it came to be cursed is explained in detail in The Volsunga Saga. Its curse is simply a source of disaster for every person who owns it, its principal characteristic is that nearly everyone wants to get it, except Sigurd, who has got it, but doesn't know what it is – Sounds like Lord of the Rings doesn't it.
Magic rings in Jewish lore; they are mentioned in the Talmud & Midrash. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato, in the second book of The Republic, tells a story about the Ring of Gyges.
A small number of Viking Age finger rings bearing runic inscriptions of apparently magical significance are known, among them the Kingmoor Ring and the Bramham Moor Ring. There are 7 known rings of the Anglo-Saxon Period (9th or 10th century) bearing runic inscriptions. The most notable of these are the Bramham Moor Ring, found in the 18th century, and the Kingmoor Ring, found 1817, inscribed with a nearly identical magical formula read as; ærkriufltkriuriþonglæstæpontol . A third ring, found before 1824 (perhaps identical with a ring found in 1773 at Linstock castle in Carlisle), has a magical inscription of a similar type, ery.ri.uf.dol.yri.þol.wles.te.pote.nol. The remaining four rings have much shorter inscriptions;
  • Wheatley Hill, Durham, found 1993, now in the British Museum. Late 8th century. Inscription: [h]ring ic hatt[æ], "I am called a ring".
  • Coquet Island, Northumberland, found before 1866, now lost. Inscription: + þis is - "this is…".
  • Cramond, Edinburgh, found 1869-70, now in the National Museum of Scotland. 9th-10th century. Inscription: [.]ewor[.]el[.]u.
  • Thames Exchange, London, found 1989, now in the Museum of London. Inscription: fuþni ine.
The ring is an unbroken hoop, an ancient & potent symbol of the eternal nature of the Earth's cycles, the cycle of the Sun Goddess or God & the fertility & fruitfulness they embody or take away. In ancient art she is often depicted as wearing a neck ring. The ring has been known to be used to swear sacred oaths upon in Germanic rites. This tradition is still widely continued today with the tradition of the Wedding ring too.
If you choose read some of these myths from Norse, Sweden Finland, Turkey, Japanese and so on. As well about magical rings.
Spinning Discs & Returning weapons - Boomerang? Lightening?? UFO? Sun God's Crown? Might be a wind tunnel in storm or made from rod into disc. My guess is another constellation or part of a constellation, long since renamed.
The Scythe or Sickle is actually a constellation, which is of Death & Coldness. Like all other constellations of the element of Earth it also consists of five stars. Unlike all other constellations the guiding star of the Scythe is positioned at the connection of the staff & the sickle but doesn't shine brighter than the stars it guides. It is very difficult to spot because of the very dark glow of the guiding star & the dispersed positions of the single stars contained in it. Deaths Scythe, became a negative when the Christian culture wanted it to represent their view of death being a "harvest of souls". Therefore these superstitious people see the viewing of the Scythe as a bad omen. The original view states that death takes life from the crops so that it may start a new cycle, as we all must. Smaller cycles within bigger ones. The scythe is more popular today as associated with the Grim Reaper.
    Divine books - (Seem to be made of different precious gem stones) - The Jade Books in Heaven - described in several Daoist cosmographies. In Sumerian lore, "there is a (book) tablet of lapis lazuli of course in Christian lore a Lapis Lazuli book appears as evil advice from a demon. In Muslim mystical lore, the archangel ʼIsrafʼil is owner of a “jewelled tablet of fate.” “The Tablet of Destiny” is made of pearl. Hellenistic - the Emerald Tablet of Hermēs Tris-megistos. The Tablets of Destiny - mentioned in Mesopotamian mythology as a set of clay tablets which hold the power of creation and destruction. The Book of Thoth - is a legendary book is said to have been buried with the Prince Neferkaptah in Necropolis – Egyptian myth. Manzan Gurme Toodei holds the great book of fate in which is written all that has happened, all that is happening, and all that will happen.
    Grimoire = A grimoire is a textbook of magic based off of the “divine books” above, thus the Celtic artwork within would be stunning. Such books typically include instructions on how to create magical objects like talismans and amulets, how to perform magical spells, charms and divination. It might also tell how to summon or invoke beings of the otherworlds or dimensions. In many cases the books themselves are also believed to be imbued with magical powers, though in many cultures other sacred texts such as the Bible or the Quran are also believed to intrinsically have magical properties. The term grimoire is originally European, & many Europeans throughout history, the cunning folk, have made use of grimoires. These books are sacred and hidden. Tomes - A tome is a large book, especially one volume of a multi-volume scholarly work. This is what I have for your teachings. And what you shall have for yours. Most likely of Gaelic origin. The word is also meaning attractive, (maybe descendant from like luring sacred knowledge) in West Ireland. In Ireland it is usually uttered by a man in reference to a woman - "Look at your wan, she's pure tome, like! Book of Shadows - is a book containing religious texts & instructions for rituals found within the Neopagan religion of Wicca. The first Book of Shadows was created by the pioneer of Wicca, Gerald Gardner, sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s. They keep everything in the book so more a journal or diary. There was no such thing as a Book of Shadows in ancient times.
Bell: Different bells have certain sounds which affect frequencies around you. Through history to announce a change. This is done in rituals to for cues to start something. It is said Certain tones call different mythical creatures but that is for you to discover. A gift of a bell as a wedding present to call 'Time out' in an argument is a great idea done in Northern Europe. Bells go on pets for safety from negative spirits. Bell Branch: Usually a silver branch, hung with bells for Druid purposes.
Sporrans: almost like a crane bag, The Crane-Skin Bag of Cumhail.
Clairvoyant tools - Keekstane, skrying bowl, mirrors, crystal ball or orb, trance music,, or mazy stone – symbols for wisdom.
Brooms: Brooms are used in a Celtic trial marriage, called a Handfasting, as a symbolic gesture of becoming one on the other side. Also used in crop or plant festivals in a leap dance to urge the crops to grow higher. It has been used throughout history as a symbol of fertility & happy home. The handle is sometimes carved to resemble the male phallus, while the brush is tied around the other side to represent the female principle. It is kept upside down to keep the good energy in and brush down when sweeping out bad energy like Fen shei. Birch Swish ?? Norse have what is called a TEINN(chen) – used for the same thing.
Skull/Spirit Houses: Can also be a box or jar to house a spirit in. Once designated as a dwelling for a spirit to communicate. Some are entrapped there, ancestors too.
Sacred Boxes or Cloth – to hold sacred tools such as feathers, soil, mool, drums. Pandora's Box (Greek mythology) was a sealed container of all the downfalls of mankind. The original Greek word used was pithos, which is a large jar, sometimes as large as a small human, used for storage of wine, oil, grain or other provisions, or, ritually for human body burying. The mistranslation of pithos is usually attributed to the 16th century humanist Erasmus Rotterdam who translated Hesiod's tale of Pandora into Latin. Erasmus rendered pithos as the Greek pyxis, meaning "box". It should have said that in her 'jar' remained hope.
Altar & Altar Items: The Norse call their altar a HARROW. Salt, Incense, Celtic Ale or Norse Alu, Mortar & Pestle, Feathers, are common altar.
Rods, Wands or Staffs - Caduceus is the winged rod of Hermes or Mercury, entwined with two serpents; originally a simple olive branch; in the hands of the god possessed of magical virtues; it is also seen as a symbol of peace. The Caduceus began to be used erroneously as a symbol of the medical profession in the United States in the 19th century, due to it having been confused with the correct symbol of the profession, the rod of Asclepius. They still use this wrong symbol today. Grid's Rod, an iron staff given to Thor so he could kill the Troll King. Grid also gave him the "Armor of Thor". It is a personal item and is called "an luirgean" or "an lorg ohn" in Gaelic.
Sites, Places & Cities - Caerleon - City of Legions - Arthurian, Camlann - site of Arthur's last battle; (means crooked enclosure)., Dinas Emrys - a fortified city belonging to Merlin., Carlisle - (city of the wall-tower); where Guinevere's affair was exposed. Perceforest - pierce-forest. Is this named from a person?? - Arthurian., ros – mound
Armour - Wigar the armor of King Arthur. The Armour of Achilles, created by Hephaestus & said to be impenetrable (Greek). The Armour of Thor, consisting of the Girdle of Might, a magic belt that doubled his strength; and iron gloves so he could wield Mjolnir. The Armour of Beowulf, made by Weyland the Smith. The Armour of Karna, known as Kavacha. In Indian Mythology Karna was the son of the Sun god. Karna was born with his armor on & nothing can penetrate it. Trickery to kill them.Wynebgwrthucher – shield or ship – welsh In later Arthurian legend, Pridwen became the name of Arthur's shield. Gawain won the red shield that was once carried by the Jewish hero of the 2nd century BC, named Judas Maccabee. Gawain gained the shield when he defeated a knight. Shield of Joseph of Arimathea - The Shield of Joseph of Arimathea appeared in the Grail romance, titled Perlesvaus. Three maidens took the shield to Arthur's castle in Cardueil. It was left behind so that Perceval would later take the shield. Perceval used this shield to defeat the Knight of the Burning Dragon. Shield of Evalach (Evalach = Mordrain), Galahad The shield belong to King Evalach (Mordrain) during the time of Joseph of Arimathea and his son Josephus. Josephus painted the red cross on the white shield with his own blood. Galahad would later win the shield from the shield's guardian (angel?) The Aegis, Zeus' shield, often loaned to his daughterAthena, also used by Perseus – Greek, Percival Arthurian. Svalinn is a shield which stands before the sun- Norse. Ancile, shield of the Roman god Mars. Shield of Telamonian Ajax. Britiain = The Shield of Galahad, made by King Evelake and adorned with a red cross painted with the blood of Joseph of Arimathea. The Shield of Lancelot, given to him by the Lady of the Lake.
Headgear - The Helmet of Rostam, upon which was fixed the head of the white giant Dive-e Sepid, - Persian. The Helmet of Hades, created by the Cyclopes for Hades which made the wearer invisible - used by Perseus. The Tarnhelm, a helmet used by Alberich – Norse.
The Golden Fleece - sought by Jason and the Argonauts. Fleece is the lamb once used for the spring equinox. Today it no longer is, as we are in Pisces. Jason's journey follows the suns journey through the characters of the Greek zodiac.
Miscellaneous - The Quaran Treasure, said to belong to King Croesus of Lydia. The treasure is said to be in perpetual motion under the ground – Persian. The Sampo, a magic mill in – Finnish. Bridges, Castles, Buildings & Houses - Manzan Gurme Toodei house sometimes reveals itself as a rainbow connecting heaven and earth – same as the bridge in Norse and other mythologies. Maui's Fishhook, used to catch the fish that would become New Zealand's North Island or the Hawaiian islands – Polynesian myth. Magic Mould - stolen from the Yellow Emperor by Yu so he could stop the flood – Chinese Mythology. Talismans, Amulets or Charms - The Palladium a wooden statue that fell from the sky – Greek. The Bone of Ulr - The god Ullr had a bone upon which spells were carved.
Books & Rocks,, Gem or Metal - Gjöll is a rock in the Prose Edda. Amber sacred to Freyja. Kaustubha - a divine jewel, Mani - a stone in the possession of Vishnu - Hindu mythology.
Instruments - Gjallarhorn - Heimdallr's trumpet, Horn of Gabriel, Lyre's, harps, & so on.
Spears or Polearms - Gungnir - Odin's magic spear. The Spear of Destiny or Bleeding Lance or the Spear of Longinus - In its more ancient form it was called Spear Luin (spear of fire), forged by the Smith of Falias for Lugh to use in his fight against Balor. Ascalon, the spear of St. George. The Gae Bolg, the spear of Cuchalainn. Ogma's whip was also known as the spear of Ogma (Sun God) both used to "guide the passage of the invisible sun". Rhongomiant (Rhongowennan, Rhongomynad is original, later called 'Ron'), is the spear or lance of King Arthur. Ysbaddadan's Javelins - This Fomori owned a set of spears. Amenonuhoko (heavenly spear), the naginata used by the Shinto deities. Trishula, the trident of the Hindu deity Shiva. Poseidon's Trident, used to create things. Harry Potters Elder Wand is same type. The Kantele owned by Vainamoinen.
Thor's Hammer: The Hammer is primarily a symbol of Thor one of the most loved & honoured of the ancient Germanic Gods. The hammer of Thor was named Mjolnir (which means "the crusher", I did find a lone source that says this means "Thunderbolt".) and was one of the God's most precious treasures of Thor cultures, & represents life bringing (fertility) powers of the great cosmic phallus, defends the Gods & their allies in mankind from the bringers of chaos & destruction, the Giants. It is equivalent to the Celtic Spear. The Hammer of Thor has come to represent the whole of the modern Asatru religion. It was created by the gnome Sindri. It was very popular as these are the hoard finds;

Thor’s hammer, silver, decorated - Verdal, Nord-Trøndelag - Stray find
Ring with 9 iron, Thor’s hammers; undecorated - Hilde, Innvik, near Stryn - Female burial Grave, cremation in a mound with a boat - 10th century.
Thor’s hammer, iron, undecorated - Kaupang, Tjølling Urban site c. 800–960
Thor’s hammer, iron, undecorated - Kaupang, Tjølling Female burial Grave, inhumation, oriented NNE–SSW, in a mound with a boat - c. 850–900
Thor’s hammer, inscribed on two Arabic coins - Kaupang, Tjølling Urban site Post 844–869, Post 951–955
Thor’s hammer on a silver arm ring, undecorated - Gjulem, Rakkestad Hoard Viking Period.
Thor’s hammer, silver, decorated, filigree - Tråen, Rollag Hoard (746.8 g) Post-991, coin dated.
Mould for Thor’s hammer, ?bronze, undecorated - Mysen, Eidsberg (Male?) burial Grave, cremation, in a mound - Viking Period.
Thor’s hammer, silver, decorated with circles - Søndre Vik, Fitjar Male burial. Flat grave, inhumation, oriented N–S, with a boat - Viking Period
Ring with Thor’s hammer, silver, with two undecorated hammers - Vela, Sand, Ryfylke Hoard - First half of 10th century, coin dated
Thor’s hammer, silver, undecorated - Bråtveit, Suldal Hoard? Post 978–1016, coin dated.
Iron age - It is important to note that all the Thor’s hammers now in Norway have been found south of a line linking Bergen to Oslo. We compare this to East of Norway and it becomes even more evident that the Thor’s hammer pendant symbol was not used around ancient Norway. Findings have been the furthest south possible from it, and from both in the west and east, on the coast as well as inland. Secondly, there have only been a few Norwegian Thor hammer Rings but this does not give any basis for claiming that the Thor’s hammer rings are older than the pendants. The larger samples are found mostly from Sweden and Denmark, not Norway. Viking Age - 9th & early 10th centuries have taken place at Kaupang, giving two finds of Thor’s hammers. Tønsberg, Trondheim & Oslo, show no finds of Thor’s hammers. In Sweden & Denmark have the majority of finds & only a quarter being in burials. The silver hammers mostly come from 10th & 11th CE silver hoards.
Chair or Throne - Lisdkjalf - Odin's throne on the tallest tower in Asgard. Other spellings it is Hliðskjálf. Cadair Idris, aka The Chair of Idris the Giant. Thrones if Cerridwen, Arianrhod etc.
Household Items - Eldhrímnir is kettle mentioned in the Prose Edda.
Weapons or objects - Mantell Tegau Eurfron; The mantle is specifically named Gwenn. / Llen Arthyr yng Nghernyw: The Mantle of Arthur in Cornwall. / Fail-not - Bow of Tristan.Gandiva, Arjuna's bow in The Bhagavad-Gita ("Song of God"). valuable stone "Mani" is in the possession of Vishnu - Hindu mythology. Ares – girdle/belt - Heracles' 9th Labor was to retrieve it. Gjöll is a rock mentioned in the Prose Edda. Skein of thread Ilamert of Lanoier, Laamorz of Janfrüege, Gawain. Friggerock (Frigg’s distaff)
COMMON NORTHERN EUROPEAN SYMBOLS
There are many symbols as well that Celts/Norse wear or use. In fact, in any pagan path you choose, there are a seemingly endless number of symbols.
Valknot: Appearing in ancient sacred images associated with Odin. The "knot of the slain" is the symbolic sign of the coming together of the powers from the 9 worlds of the universe. This is the symbol of Odin, showing his power to bind or loosen the minds and souls of man, subtly affecting the knotted web of fate as he lays bonds upon them, so that they become helpless in battle, or he could loosen the grip of fear by his gifts of intoxicating battle-madness and divine inspiration.
Triskelle: The ancient symbol of the triskelle shows the swirling might emanating from the three great levels of being: the Overworld, the Middleworld and the Underworld. This represents the unification of balanced opposites to create directional force attuned to ones will, setting goals into motion, bringing them into being and empowering them in all realms.
Sunwheel (also called Fyfot or swastika): This cross within a circle is one of the many symbols of the sun, & one of Mankinds oldest & mightiest spiritual symbols worldwide. It is representative of the sun on its cycle, and the suns major events in that year. It invokes the vital cosmic powers from the fire of the heavens. The Pole and branches of the 9 worlds on the tree. In ancient times small sunwheels made of wheat were set on fire and rolled down the fjords into the bay in Scandinavian rituals at Midsummer. The Fylfot (means "four footed"). There are thousands of variants of this mighty symbol & is commonly swirling in both clockwise & counterclockwise forms without any change in meaning. The Fylfot is particularly holy to Father Gods. A potent symbol of dynamic cosmic power, and unstoppable swirling strength of the will, invoking his might & protection. This motif occurs frequently throughout many countries since the early Bronze Age and is prominent on cremation urns & carved memorial grave stones for protection in the afterlife. Elfin-Beam is the sun.
Shield knot: The Sheila knot & its variants are a powerful symbol of protection, still in use today in Scandinavian countries to mark off protected sites of archeological ancient cultural heritage.
Runes: Runes are the symbolic expressions of the cosmic mysteries of the universe, discovered by Odin during his shamanic initiation. Rune magic developed & evolved, among the various Teutonic tribes since the late Bronze Age. Runes are now widely used in divination, but had been inscribed on amulets or talismans primarily concerned with healing, protection, victory, fertility & growth. Origin still argued. They say from an old Germanic alphabet but have been found elsewhere on stone tablets.
Heart: Originally a stylized representation of the female genitalia, this ancient symbol of the heart is the sign of the blessings of love life, fertility, and the spiritual creative energies from which the exchange of pleasure here gives. These are the Earth Goddesses. It's symbolic use in sacred erotic love & fertility magic is well documented from the Early Bronze Age to our present time.
Footprint: Found on very early bronze age rock carvings, the symbol of the bare footprint in is associated most often with the cult of the Vanir, as well as the Christian & Celtic cult. It is a mighty symbol of the presence of the King / God, bringing fruitfulness to the land & people by marrying the Goddess, in some tribes represented by a horse. The ceremony might have taken place as the King putting his foot into the impression to be crowned or maybe he had to fit the print – no one knows.
Apple: Idunna is the Goddess of eternal spring, immortal youth and vitality, and the guardian of the Golden Apples of Immortality, she alone is allowed to pick these sacred apples which represent fertility, youthful vigour and vibrant life force. Idunna shares her magical apples with the Gods and Goddesses everyday to bestow immortal youth and beauty upon all ate them. Idunna carefully guards her golden apples in her magic basket as they are considered the most prized treasures of Asgard, and no matter how many she withdraws from her basket, the same number always remains for distribution at the feasts of the Gods. Apples of Youth - The apples of youth are magic apples that keep the gods and goddesses perpetually young. The apples grow in a golden box and are kept by Idunna In Norse Mythology. The Golden Apple of Discord - Greek myth - the Golden Apple of Discord was used by the goddess Eris as a means to cause an argument among the Olympian goddesses as to who among them was prettiest and thereby ruin a celebration to which Eris had not been invited.
Eggs: a potent symbol of the forces of fertility, life and rebirth. Found in many ancient graves sites as a symbol of eternal life. held sacred to Ostara and her rabbit (Easter Bunny).
Ships: The ship is commonly seen in rock carvings as far back as 5000 BCE. It is later seen on funeral stones, in graves, and is held to be one of the vehicles to reach the afterlife. The ship is also a symbol of fertility (getting or bringing cargo) & is associated with the Vanic deities, particularly Njord, god of commerce, and Nerthus who's image was carried around in a ship. To the Teutonic peoples, the ship was not just a means of transport, but played an overwhelming part of their spiritual and cultural development. Its' use in fertility and funeral rites. Nagelfar - The ship that brings ghosts to Ragnarok, said to be made from the nails of dead men. It was customary to cut short the nails of corpses to help prolong the time until Ragnarok. Hringhorni - Baldur's funeral boat. Skidbladnir - Freyr's magic ship that could change size. It could hold all the Aesir & their horses yet it could fold so you could fit it in your pocket. It could sail over both land & sea & was created by the sons of the gnome Ivaldi. Once the sails were lifted a steady breeze would always come. The Argo is the ship of the Argonauts. Its bow could talk and it had the power of prophecy (Greek mythology). The Canoe of Gluskab, able to expand so it could hold an army or shrink to fit in the palm of your hand – (Abenaki mythology). The Canoe of Maui, which became the South Island of New Zealand.
Wells - Well of Wisdom - A well located in Jotunheim. It was owned by the jotun Mimr and contained the knowledge of the jotun race. Therefore if wells contained knowledge of happenings, which is still an unproven science today (healing placebos), with they say water has memory. A well would always have a guardian to protect that knowledge, some had a sacred fish or other placed within.
Sacred Trees, Plants & Flowers - Trees were often regarded as sacred in the ancient world, throughout Europe, India 7 Asia mostly. Christianity & the new Islam religion treated the worship of trees as idolatry & this led to their destruction in Europe and most of West Asia. Saint Stephan of Perm cut down a birch sacred to the Komi people as part of his proselytizing among them in the years after 1383 CE. His profanation of their shrines & cult images incurred their hostility. Sacred trees remain common in India, found in villages, in the countryside and the heart of some temples. In Sri Lanka, Buddhists worship the Bodhi Tree. It is said to have protected the Buddha when he was meditating to attain enlightenment, as did Odin & many other Gods of various tribes.
The custom of transferring disease or sickness from men to trees is well known. As well as a persons link to a tree. Its recovery and that of the patient are often associated. Different explanations may be found of such customs which naturally take rather different forms among different cultures. In India, for example, when the patient is supposed to be tormented by a demon, ceremonies are performed with a tree to drive it out. Such trees most likely already possessed some peculiar reputation.
Among the Arabs the sacred trees are haunted by angels or by jinn; sacrifices are made, and the sick who sleep beneath them receive prescriptions in their dreams. Here, as frequently elsewhere, it is dangerous to pull a bough. This dread of damaging special trees is familiar: Cato instructed the woodman to sacrifice to the male or female deity before thinning a grove, while in the Homeric poem to Aphrodite the tree nymph is wounded when the tree is injured, and dies when the trunk falls.
The World Tree: Yggdrasil is the "World tree", a gigantic Ash tree & central pillar that binds connects binds the 9 worlds of the Universe together. The name Yggdrasil translates as: Ygg "terrible" + drasil "steed". Yggr is another name of Odin, giving a meaning of "Odin's steed", which in my find has 8 legs. In later tales these 8 rays of the sun chariot (horse) became 8 tiny reindeer. The same tree was known as the 'Irminsul' to the continental Germanic tribes, and it was an oak or wooden pillar venerated by the Saxons which was said to connect heaven and earth. The name Irminsul is translated as "mighty Pillar" & is derived from "IRMIN" another ancient name for ODIN from continental Saxons (Old Norse: Jörmunr). From these stories I can guess that the tree represented a cosmic balance or order that hangs down from the sun who hangs from the pole centre & keeps all going in cycles. The tree is thus a growth chart for coming in to our own personal power through spiritual activities & finding hidden knowledge in each part of the tree. In some the world tree was the tall fur trees which stayed green in the winter. This ash, oak, or fir tree is the source of life with several roots. In the Norse version, one root leads to Asgard and one to Niflheim. The serpent Nidhogg gnaws at the roots, & an eagle sits on the top of the tree. The Norns care for the tree to keep it healthy. The Cosmic tree of Life was honoured during winter. and this celebration still continues today at Yuletide, disguised in now the Christianized form - the Christmas Tree.
Wishing trees - In almost every part of the world travellers have observed the custom of hanging objects upon trees in order to establish some sort of a relationship between themselves & the tree. Throughout Europe also, a mass of evidence has been collected testifying to the lengthy persistence of superstitious practices & beliefs concerning them.
Buddhism decided that trees had neither mind nor feeling & might lawfully be cut; but it recognized that certain spirits might reside in them. Modern natives of India firmly believe this. A ritual of honour is made before the sacrilegious axe is laid to holy trees or one might find loss of life or of wealth & the failure of rain on crops should they be wantonly cut. Some trees are forbidden to climb. Stefan of Perm took an axe to a birch tree to show his religions power over the Komi of Great Perm's beliefs.
Numerous popular stories reflect a firmly rooted belief in an intimate connection between a Human being and a tree, plant or flower. Thus, some tribes connected a new-born child with a newly planted tree with which was used on ceremonial occasions like engagement, nobility or other title. Sometimes, moreover, boughs or plants are selected and the individual draws omens of life and death from the fate of his or her choice. Again, a man will put himself into relationship with a tree by depositing upon it something which has been in the closest contact with himself (hair, clothing, ext.). We even see this in modern day legend retelling of ancient legends in Harry Potter and the hair or feather in the woo of wands. This kind of magic you learned in your pre-tribe lessons is called sympathetic magic. Now you might find this unusual but it was actually very common and they had something there. Think of a material object which affect the former owner. There have been numerous stories in modern day where an object has been purchased only to have a spirit attached to it, whether it has been a house, furniture or a doll. With this knowledge we can start to understand the real inter-connection between humans, trees and the world which the so called primitive minds never had any difficulty understanding.
Oracle Trees - were famous - the oak of Dodona tended by priests who slept on the ground. The oaks of Prussians were inhabited by gods who gave responses. The old Hebrew terebinths. Pilgrimage Sacred trees - the branch of the Bo tree at Sri Lanka. Tree-spirits also hold sway over a surrounding forest & the animals in the locality are often sacred & must not be harmed.
Celtic Cross A Celtic Cross is a symbol that combines a cross with a ring surrounding the intersection. The drawing of the Celtic cross goes back in time as testified by the circle ditches left of the Bronze Age, with points at four quarters. It can be just as well found in the camp layout of the Vikings or Indian populations of Northern America. More proof in my opinion that the directions existed among the Celts.
If we look at the Viking camp, it was a huge circular rampart surrounding a number of hall shaped barracks. (ancient castles). This is exactly like the Celts only their houses were round. The Fyrkat camp in Denmark had 16 halls equally distributed between 4 quarters that were actually separated by the branches of a cross. We shall have more on the building of one in future lessons for anyone taking on the role of mason / carpenter types.
The cross was also used as the basis for the camp of Indian tribes. The Sioux tepees were notably built in a circle around the central tepee of the guardian, and oriented according to the compass points, the cross symbolized the harmony of the being with the Cosmos and the inspiration for the dance ritual.
Everything, absolutely everything, in the universe is the manifestation of the Principle, the One, the Centre or the Whole. Maers Khohias members strive to see the tribe like this, the world like this. Circles within circles. What one does affects so much more than self. The points on a Celtic cross constitute the centres associated with different states of being, the possibilities of those on our world spotted by the four compass directions. The sphere, if the Celtic cross were to be seen as 3 dimensional, and round like our earth, envelops a specific state in this cosmic sphere where the being can develop his physical and psychical possibilities. The extension of the branches beyond the sphere leading to many states is called the world tree. The being that must perpetually continue to go round in circles through a multitude of other states, because we do not attain the Centre of complete emptiness, because it frightens us so much. But this emptiness is totally from using our physical senses because it is not empty but full of all what we do not know yet.
The symbol is associated with European Christianity, however, it has pre-Christian origins. Older crosses represented the sun. Each point of the cross relates to the where the stars positions are at the winter solstice. Only the Christian cross shows arms outside the circle, while the sun cross is totally surrounded by its circle and some sun crosses are sometimes made with more than four arms. The archaic English word for cross as an instrument of torture is rood (literally "pole"so we see looking down the pole of the tree - the Celtic Cross).
Wands are most likely created from the days of human sacrifice and later Kings or Priest was given a branch, fruit or sacred plant growing on a tree in which to put his soul.
Dragon - The oldest recorded use of the dragon to symbolize Wales is from the Historic Brittonum, written around 820, by Nennius. The possible explanation for the existence of the gargantuan monsters could actually been the last of a dying race of dinosaurs passed on orally for literally thousands of years. Intriguing & cannot be ignored as for it is quite possible.
Draco, one of the 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy, is Latin for 'dragon'. Dragon' seems to be a term used for any mysterious snakelike creature in mythology, sometimes lizard looking. In Egyptian mythology, Heracles was to steal the golden apples, his 11th labour is due to its position and nearby constellations in the zodiac sign of Libra. In Greek mythology, Draco represents the dragon that guarded the Golden Fleece killed by Jason.
Dragon is associated with the heavens, (Pendragon) whose tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, & did cast them to the earth. The word root *dhragh- 'To draw, drag on the ground'. Another word associated with dragon, is Old Norse word 'Draugrs', which means dream or vision. The dragon strength is not in its teeth but in its tail, killing whatever it wraps itself around. Some scholars say that the word 'draugr', which literally means a “guardian spirit” who guards the burial mound of a king - you can compare this to Tolkien's barrow wights. The serpent thus were guardians of the graves of kings or ancient civilizations
The serpent in the Garden of Eden tells Eve about the Tree of Knowledge but she has different interpretation to what she understood it to be. She says that even if she touches the tree she will die. The serpent responds that she will not die, rather she would become like a god, knowing both good and evil. Pagans believed in Gods on earth but for Christians, this all knowing had to be taken away as only the Priests or 'cardinals' could be allowed to have this knowledge. As such Guardian dragon tails as well changed the treasure became cursed & brought ill to those who later possessed it.
"Today we see him forever asleep. To wake a sleeping Pendragon is to awake a dormant power. This power, some believe, is connected to a tissue in the skull that contains a substance called magnetite. This helps living creatures sense magnetic changes and thus, if it is true that electromagnetic fields can influence the body and mind, it is also probably true the brain can change the magnetic fields, or dimensions and ascend if you will. Now this is an art and some of the effects are akin to that of static electricity, and the energy may also create low frequency vibrations that alter perception, but can induce feelings of headaches, unbalance, dizziness, and nausea. This could be related to those who could be dreamers as these are the affects of afterwards and also suppressed abilities.
The dragon chiefly represents the principle of the beginning. Celtic Artwork & ancient North American Indian petroglyphs are very similar. In fact, Dragons are a very common feature of Celtic art. The dragons had influence over the land, and its babies are the locations where they appeared possessing special power – ley lines. The Celtic dragons were also associated with water, not fire, and most were worm-like in shape, without legs, although they sometimes had wings, and having poisonous bites or stings as opposed to breathing fire. On rare occasions the meteor showers or fountains are seen as Draco breathing fire. Celtic dragons represented sovereignty or kingship, - 'Pendragon', meaning 'chief' or 'head of'. You will notice that all these tales are still being repeated today, Lord of the Rings, Harry Potter & so on.
Geomancy had been practised in ancient Britain. When a M.K. Ranger surveys the land for any activity (i. e. building, festival celebrations, etc.) they would speak of the ley of the land. Today we use that same term but different meaning. We picture exactly how the hills roll or the shape of the river flow.
"The places associated with the dragon legend, the nerve centres of seasonal fertility, appear always to coincide with sites of ancient sanctity". The path of the dragons, called a vein, was critical to the flow of energy or ley of the land. IF there was a spot that the dragon crossed often, a spot where the veins crossed or a spot where the dragon would stop to rest, that became a spot of heightened power. Stonehenge is thought to be one of those places. The Celtic Cross is surrounded by a circle with the crossing ley line centred on that power.
King Arthur himself was burdened by dreams of dragons; although it is unclear which colour he saw. He saw them specifically at the time of Sir Mordred's conception and before his death. He is eaten by dragons in his final dream and it is at his next battle that Sir Mordred kills him. It is said that when a king sees dragons there will be much ruin come to his kingdom and himself. But we know that with the introduction of Christianity to the Celts came a change in the role of dragons. Now this is not originally Welsh, as still today, the Welsh people never turned the Dragon to evil. They were out of the way of the main Christian sects. Their flag which proudly displays the Red Dragon and their motto which reads: Y Ddraig Goch Ddyry Cychwyn, The Red Dragon Leads the Way. Y Ddraig Goch, is the most magical and mysterious Dragon of them all - the Red Dragon of Wales.
The Trilobitomorpha bones, perhaps, in the Welsh mountains, became the immortal legends as the "Red Dragon of Wales". Red Dragon lore is abound - Dragon's Wish,' is one such example.


The Irish Goddess Brighid (later turned into a real person called Saint Brighid) had the totem cat. In the Welsh traditions, Cerridwen turned into a kitten which grows into Palug cat. (Palug means clawing) . In other traditions their story is Cath Palug.

By Laurie-Lee Mills


Copyright 28th November 2011